Loogaroo

 

Loogaroo in the West Indies is a blood sucking crone who has made a pact with the Devil. Like other vampires, she can change into varrious animals after first shedding her human skin. If injured while in animal guise, she’ll have a wound in the same place after returning to human form.

We have another example here of the idea of the skin physcialy having to be shed in order for the shape-shifting to take place, as well this myth seems to be another sort of vampire-werewolf cross. As the conneections of the crone and the pact with the devil, seem to have close ties with old werewolf myths. And shape-shifting is something that vampires and werewolves tend to have in common. I also find it somewhat intresting that the name itself Loogaroo, phoneticaly sounds a lot like the French word for werewolf Loup guro and acutally physcialy resmebles the spelling of the word, though I do not not exzactly what Loogaroo translates to.   

*Image info: The Night Hag Visiting the Lapland Witches, by Henry Fuseli

Chronology of Scottish Witch Trials

 

In my research I was surprsied by how many both men and women I came acorss whom were accused, tried, and executed for witchcraft in Scotland, as I was not aware that Scoatland had had such a big witchunt period, and so this struck my intrest I began to look it up, and put together to the best of my ablity, this chronology of accused witches in Scotland.

1560

Hector Munro

Catherine Rosso

1569

Paris (Last name unknown)

Christian Stewart

1572

Janet Bownan

1576

Bessie Dunlap

1588

Alison Pearson

1591

Geillis Duncane

Agnes Sampson

John Fian

1594

Alison Balfour

1607

Isobel Grierson

1608

Beigis Tod

1621

Mariam Chatte

Christiane Hamylton

Bessie Harlow

Margret Rent

1622

Agnes Yullock

Elspeth Reoch

Marable Cuper

Agnes Scottie

Jenka Dyneis

1629

Isobel Smith

1643

Jante Brown

Mariam Cumlaquoy

Agnes Fynnie

Margaret Lauder

Marion Peebles

1661

Jonet Allen

1662

Isobel Gowdie

Marrie Lamont

1670

Thomas Weir

Alexander Drummand

1680

Annaple Thompson

William Craw

1704

Janet Corset

1705

Geroge Rattray

Lachlan Rattray

*Margret Dunhome- Date Unknown

                                                                          

(Image info: Artist Unknown, image found at http://altreligion.about.com/library/glossary/bldefburningtimes.htm)                                                  

The Stedinger–Political “Witches

Long celebrated for their attachment to freedom and their successful struggles in its defence, the Frieslanders inhabited the German district from the Weser to the Zuydersee. They had formed a general confederacy against the encroachments of the Saxons and the Normans back in the eleventh century. This confederacy was broken up into seven seelands. Every year, they gathered under a large oak tree at Aurich, near the Upstalboom. Here, without the control of ambitious nobles and clergy, they managed their own affairs. This self-government scandalized the nobles.

Eventually, the Archbishop of Bremen, along with the Count of Oldenburg and other neigbouring potentates, formed an alliance against the section of Frieslanders known by the name of the Stedinger. After harassing the Stedinger and sowing dissension amongst them for many years, the alliance were able to bring them under the yoke. Nevertheless, the Steinger were devotedly attached to their ancient laws and civil/religious liberty, and did not submit without a violent struggle.

In 1204, the Stedinger revolted and refused to pay tithes to the clergy or taxes to the feudal chiefs. They managed to drive out many of their oppressors. For twenty-eight years, the Stedinger continued their single-handed struggle against the Counts of Oldenburg and the Archbishops of Bremen. In 1232, they destroyed the Count of Oldenburgs’s strong castle of Slutterberg.

The Archbishop of Bremen found the courage of these poor people too strong to cope with by ordinary means of warfare, so he petitioned Pope Gregory IX for spiritual aid. The Pope responded by labelling the Stedinger as witches and heretics, and encouraging all true believers to assist in their extirmination.

In 1233, a large body of fanatics and thieves broke into the lands of the Stedinger, burning and killing wherever they went. Children and women were not spared. Neither were the aged or the sick. Nevertheless, the Stedinger rallied in great force and routed their invaders, killing in battle their leader, Count Burckhardt of Oldenburg, along with many inferior chieftains.

Once again, the Pope was petitioned. This time, his holiness preached a crusade against the Stedinger to all that part of Germany. He wrote all bishops and leaders of the Catholics an exhortation to arm, to root out from the land those abominable wizards and witches. According to the Pope,

The Stedinger, seduced by the devil, have abjured all the laws of God and man, slandered the Church, insulted the holy sacraments, consulted witches to raise evil spirits, shed blood like water, taken the lives of priests, and concocted an infernal scheme to propagate the worship of the devil, whom they adore under the name of Asmodi. The devil appears to them in different shapes,–sometimes as a goose or a duck, and at others in the figure of a pale black-eyed youth, with a melancholy aspect, whose embrace fills their hearts with eternal hatred against the holy Church of Christ. The devil presides at their sabbaths, when they all kiss him and dance around him. He then envelopes them in total darkness, and they all, male and female, give themselves up to the grossest and most disgusting debauchery.

Because of the letters from the Pope, Frederic II, emperor of Germany, also pronounced a ban against the Stedinger. Aided by the Duke of Brabant, the Counts of Egmond, Diest, Oldenburg, the Mark, Cleves, Holland, and other powerful nobles, the Bishops of Minden, Munster, Lubeck, Osnabruck, and Ratzebourg took up arms to extirminate them. An army of forty thousand men marched under the command of the Duke of Brabant into the country of the Stedinger.

This time the Stedinger could not muster enough force. With only eleven thousand men, they fought in despair and in vain. Eight thousand Stedinger were slain in battle. The invading armies slew every Stedinger, drove away the cattle, set the cottages and forests on fires, and made a total waste of the land.

Mother Shipton

 

Mother Shipton is the most famous prophetess of the British Isles. She is one of the many figures of romance who achieve widespread fame and notoriety many years after the real exploits of their lives have faded from the pages of history. With such a passage of time, and lack of historical evidence, there is even debate as to whether she existed at all. Many of her prophecies are undoubtedly later fabrications, and the first written accounts of her exploits were published eighty years after her supposed death.

Her Legendary Life

The first stories about Mother Shipton appear in chapbooks from the mid seventeenth century, and a basic story of her life can be summarised as follows:

Mother Shipton was born in Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, in 1488 as Ursula Southheil to a poor single mother. According to tradition her mother had been seduced out of wedlock and died during her birth. Her birthplace has been identified as the cave by the river Nidd, which bears her name. Another place associated with her is the nearby dropping well, where the limestone rich waters have the power of turning objects to stone. The cave and the well were probably ‘religious’ places long before her alleged birth, and may have become associated with her as her legend grew.

Ursula was not a pretty baby by any stretch of the imagination in fact she was hideous to behold, and it was difficult to find a nurse to care for her. Eventually a woman who lived on the outskirts of Knaresborough agreed to be her foster mother.

Strange happenings were reported throughout her childhood, furniture reportedly moved around the house of its own violation, plates and crockery were said to fly around the room, and her powers of prophesy were evident at an early age.

Many stories were told of her childhood, one morning the young baby and her crib were found to be missing from the house. Several villagers were brought into her home to search for clues to her disappearance, and were attacked by supernatural forces and pricked by imps in the form of monkeys. Eventually after some of the neighbours were thrown around the room attached to a yolk, Ursula was discovered in her crib hanging in mid air half way up the chimney.

As she grew into adulthood her inborn ugliness did not improve and descriptions of her visage paint a particularly ugly figure, her nose was sight to be seen in itself being “of improportional length with many crooks and turnings…….her stature was larger than common, her body crooked and her face frightful”, she had great goggling eyes and her wreck of a nose also gave off a faint luminosity.

However, her hideous appearance did not stop her from finding a suitable husband and Ursula was married at the age of 24 to Toby Shipton – a carpenter from Shipton. They set up home in Knaresborough, which became a magnet for people far and wide in search of her words of wisdom and prophetic powers. Her fame soon spread and she became known as Mother Shipton.

Mother Shipton was thought to have died in 1561, and event that she prophesised.

Jezebel

A while back I had said that I would speak of Jezebel becasue she does intrest me, there are a few biblical women whom do, and so I thought now would be a good time, as good as any to finally get around to doing so.

 In the Tanakh (the Hebrew Scriptures and the Christian Old Testament), Jezebel is a queen of ancient Israel, whose story is told in I Kings. She is introduced by the author as a Phoenician princess, the daughter of King Ithobaal I of Tyre, who marries King Ahab. She turns Ahab away from the God of the Israelites and of the Jews (being the inhabitants of Judah in this context) and towards the worship of her god, Baal. The two then allow temples of Baal to open in Israel. Jezebel uses her control over Ahab to subject Israel to tyranny. After she slaughters the prophets of the Lord, the prophet Elijah confronts her to charge her with abominations. She responds by threatening to kill him as well. After Ahab’s death, Jezebel continues to rule through her son Ahaziah. When Ahaziah is killed in battle, she exercises control through her other son, Jehoram. Jehoram is killed by Jehu, who confronts Jezebel in Jezreel and urges her servants to kill her by throwing her out a window (defenestration). They comply, tossing her out the window and leaving her corpse in the street to be eaten by dogs; only her skull, feet, and hands remained, in fulfillment of Elijah’s prophecy. Her daughter, Athaliah, is wed to King of Judah, Jehoram, similarly corrupting Judah.

Using the vowels traditionally used for this name by Hebrew readers, the Hebrew form of this name means “not exalted”. But it is highly unlikely her parents would have given her such a name. Read with different vowels it can be understand as meaning “Where is the Prince?” (‘ay zebul in Hebrew). In fact, early Syrian inscriptions from Ugarit demonstrate that “the Prince” (equivalent of Hebrew “Zebul”) was a popular title for the storm god of the Phoenicians. The sentence “Where is the Prince?” is even found in Ugaritic literature. It is a form of invocation, calling on the god named to appear and act. In other words, this Tyrian princess was given a name in praise of the chief god of her people (whom the Hebrew Bible refers to mainly by the title “Baal”, meaning “lord, master”). “Jezebel” is, then, a reinterpretation, intended to mock this Queen and her god, whom she encouraged Israel to worship.

The Hebrew Bible contains two other examples of this name formula. First, in the larger context of the Jezebel story, after Elijah is taken up, Elisha strikes the Jordan with Elijah’s cloak and cries, “Where is YHWH, the God of Elijah?” as an invocation for God to part the waters, as he had done from Elijah (2 Kings 2). Second, the name “Ichabod“, traditionally read as “no glory” (son of the priest Phinehas, in 1 Samuel) may be read as, “Where is the Glory?” In context, the question becomes sadly ironic, because “the Glory” is associated with the ark of the covenant, which has just been captured by the Philistines. A related type of Hebrew name is “Who is like God/YHWH?” (Michael/Micaiah).

In the New Testament, Jezebel calls herself prophetess in the city of Thyatira. She is accused in Revelation 2:20 of inducing members of the church there to commit acts of sexual immorality and to eat things sacrificed to idols. Some authorities suggest that the author here uses the name Jezebel as a nickname, knowing that readers in Thyatira would know to whom it was being referred, and they would also know of the deeds of the previous Jezebel recorded in 1 Kings.

Jezebel is often refered to as being a whore, and a witch, and today the name is commonly used to refer to women that are judged as being wicked are trampish and of having loose morals. The term painted Jezebel is often used, refering to the fact that one of the great sins of Jezebel was the fact that she dared to put make up on her face which was frowned upon becasue it was seen as a way of making herself appear more tempting and sexually attractive. As we can commonly see that women are often blamed for a mans inhability to control his loins.

Jezebel was a worshiper of Baal an ancient Sumerian god, and the goddess Astarte.  Her husband King Ahab has a Pagan temple built for her which employed 450 priests of Baal and 400 priestess of Astarte.  Ironicly she is accsued of trying to force her relgion upon other people and for doing violence against the followers of God and trying to overthrow the worship of God,  and forcing the prophets of God into the wilderness to hide in caves.

In Jezebel’s case, it involved some of the most vile and perverted behavior imaginable. Even little babies were sacrificed in fire as burnt offerings to her god of stone. It was the height of wickedness.

The sacrifce of childern to a Pagan god is considered to be pervered, and weicked and the most vile of crimes, and yet when God had comanded Abraham to sacrifice his only child, and Abraham agreed and was going to slit the throat of his son befrore an angel intervened it was considered on the part of Abraham as being an act of such high reverence and holiness that he would have been willing to kill his own child at the comand of God.

Jezebel would come to meet a rather gruesum end when she was thrown from a window, trampled by horses and then gnawed upon by dogs in the street.

She was an independent, powerful, and willfull woman who refused to submit, and was not ashamed of being a woman and exhalted in her sexuality, and would not forsake her own beleif system, but faught back against those that were trying to dash out her own religion. She would not be made timid and tamed to do whatever mans will was. Nor would she bend before a God that was not her own and would demain her as a woman.

As far as I am concenred Jezebel is a heroine not a villian.

Agnes Sampson

 

“‘Wise wife of Keith.’ Notorious Scottish witch of the sixteenth century”

 Agnis Sampson was arrested and thrown in prison where, under agonizing torture and sexual abuse, she revealed the details of an astonishing and insidious conspriacy by the Devil and a local coven of witches to murder King James VI of Scotland (James I of England in 1603). The monarch himself, appalled at the ghastly details of the plot, took an active part in the inquisition….

According to Newes from Scotland (1591), “[Agnis Sampson] confessed that upon Allhallows Eve last, she was accompanied…with a great many other witches, to the number of two hundred: and that all together went by sea each one in a riddle or sieve, and went in the same very substantially with flagons of wine making merry and drinking by the way…to the Church of North Barrick in Lowthian, and that after they had landed, took hands on the land and danced back-to-back…the Devil being then at North Barrick Church attended their coming in the habit or likeness of a man, and seeing that they tarried over long, he at their coming enjoined them all to a penance, which was, that they should kiss his buttocks, in sign of duty to him: which being put on the pulpit bare, every one did as he had enjoined them: and having made his ungodly exhortations, wherein he did greatly inveighed against the King of Scotland, he received their oaths for their good and true service towards him…. At which time the witches demanded of the Devil why he did bear such hatred to the King, who answered, by reason the King is the greatest enemy he has in the world: all which their confessions and depositions are still extant upon record.”

Agnis Sampson also revealed startling details about dark deeds of sorcery directed at the King: “she confessed that at the time when his Majesty was in Denmark, she being accopmanied with the parties before specially named, took a cat and christened it, and afterwards bount to each part of that cat, the chiefest parts of a boat or vessel coming over from the town of Burnt Island to the town of Lieth, wherein was sundry jewels and rich gifts which should have been presented to the now Queen of Scotland at her Majesty’s coming to Lieth.”

Finally, Sampson declared that, “the said christened cat was the cause that the King’s Majesty’s ship at his coming forth of Denmark, had a contrary wind to the rest of his ships, then bing in his company, which thing was most strange and true, as the King’s Majesty acknowledges, for when the rest of the ships had a fair and good wind, then was the wind contrary and altogether against his Majesty: and further the said witch declared, that his Majesty had never come safely from the Sea, if his faith had not prevailed above their intentions” (Sidky 55, 58).

Giles Corey

 

Giles Corey was a prosperous farmer and full member of the church. He lived in the southwest corner of Salem village.  In April of 1692, he was accused by Ann Putnam, Jr., Mercy Lewis, and Abigail Williams of witchcraft. Ann Putnam claimed that on April 13 the specter of Giles Corey visited her and asked her to write in the Devil’s book. Later, Putnam was to claim that a ghost appeared before her to announce that it had been murdered by Corey. Other girls were to describe Corey as “a dreadful wizard” and recount stories of assaults by his specter.

Why Corey was named as a witch (male witches were generally called “wizards” at the time) is a matter of speculation, but Corey and his wife Martha were closely associated with the Porter faction of the village church that had been opposing the Putnam faction. Corey, eighty years old, was also a hard, stubborn man who may have expressed criticism of the witchcraft proceedings.

Corey was examined by magistrates on April 18, then left to languish with his wife in prison for five months awaiting trial. When Corey’s case finally went before the grand jury in September, nearly a dozen witnesses came forward with damning evidence such as testimony that Corey was seen serving bread and wine at a witches’ sacrament. Corey knew he faced conviction and execution, so he chose to refuse to stand for trial. By avoiding conviction, it became more likely that his farm, which Corey recently deeded to his two sons-in-law, would not become property of the state upon his death.

The penalty for refusing to stand for trial was death by pressing under heavy stones. It was a punishment never before seen in the colony of Massachusetts.  On Monday, September 19, Corey was stripped naked, a board placed upon his chest, and then–while his neighbors watched–heavy stones and rocks were piled on the board. Corey pleaded to have more weight added, so that his death might come quickly.

Samuel Sewall reported Corey’s death: “About noon, at Salem, Giles Corey was press’d to death for standing mute.”  Robert Calef, in his report of the event, added a gruesome detail: Giles’s “tongue being prest out of his mouth, the Sheriff with his cane forced it in again, when he was dying.” Judge Jonathan Corwin ordered Corey buried in an unmarked grave on Gallows Hill.

Corey is often seen as a martyr who “gave back fortitude and courage rather than spite and bewilderment.” His very public death may well have played in building public opposition to the witchcraft trials.